I dedicate this study to the memory of St. Paul Police officers Tim Jones and Ron Ryan, Jr. who were killed in the line of duty on August 26, 1994.  Nationwide, our public safety employees risk their lives daily as they work as law enforcement officers and firefighters.


I want to thank my family members for supporting me during my studies.

It has been hard for them at times when I have been away from home attending class or working on papers.

I want to thank everyone associated with Saint Mary's University. The administration, staff, instructors and students have been an inspiration.   I want to thank Nancy Anderson for serving as my advisor for this thesis project. Her patience and advice helped me stay focused during the final months. I want to also thank Dr. Gwen Hillesheim and Dr. Michele Fedderly for serving on my thesis panel.  I am fortunate to have had the opportunity to have worked with these dedicated educators.